Web Two

Web Two.0

Web Two.0 refers to World Broad Web websites that emphasize user-generated content, usability (ease of use, even by non-experts), and interoperability (this means that a website can work well with other products, systems, and devices) for end users. The term was popularized by Tim O’Reilly and Dale Dougherty at the O’Reilly Media Web Two.0 Conference in late 2004, however it was coined by Darcy DiNucci in 1999. [1] [Two] [Three] [Four] Web Two.0 does not refer to an update to any technical specification, but to switches in the way Web pages are designed and used.

A Web Two.0 website may permit users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue as creators of user-generated content in a virtual community, in contrast to the very first generation of Web 1.0-era websites where people were limited to the passive viewing of content. Examples of Web Two.0 features include social networking sites and social media sites (e.g., Facebook), blogs, wikis, folksonomies ("tagging" keywords on websites and links), movie sharing sites (e.g., YouTube), hosted services, Web applications ("apps"), collaborative consumption platforms, and mashup applications.

Whether Web Two.0 is substantively different from prior Web technologies has been challenged by World Broad Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee, who describes the term as jargon. [Five] His original vision of the Web was "a collaborative medium, a place where we [could] all meet and read and write." [6] [7] On the other mitt, the term Semantic Web (sometimes referred to as Web Three.0) [8] was coined by Berners-Lee to refer to a web of content where the meaning can be processed by machines. [9]


"Web 1.0" Edit

Web 1.0 is a retronym referring to the very first stage of the World Broad Web’s evolution. According to Cormode, G. and, Krishnamurthy, B. (2008): "content creators were few in Web 1.0 with the vast majority of users simply acting as consumers of content." [Ten] Individual web pages were common, consisting mainly of static pages hosted on ISP-run web servers, or on free web hosting services such as GeoCities. [11] [12] With the advent of Web Two.0, it was more common for the average web user to have social networking profiles on sites such as Myspace and Facebook, as well as individual blogs on one of the fresh low-cost web hosting services or a dedicated blog host like Blogger or LiveJournal. The content for both was generated dynamically from stored content, permitting for readers to comment directly on pages in a way that was not previously common. [ citation needed ]

Some Web Two.0 capabilities were present in the days of Web 1.0, but they were implemented differently. For example, a Web 1.0 site may have had a guestbook page to publish visitor comments, instead of a comment section at the end of each page. Server spectacle and bandwidth considerations had to be taken into account, and a long comments thread on each page could potentially slow down the site. Terry Flew, in his 3rd edition of Fresh Media, described the differences inbetween Web 1.0 and Web Two.0:

"stir from private websites to blogs and blog site aggregation, from publishing to participation, from web content as the outcome of large up-front investment to an ongoing and interactive process, and from content management systems to links based on "tagging" website content using keywords (folksonomy)".

Flew believed it to be the above factors that form the basic switch in trends that resulted in the onset of the Web Two.0 "craze". [13]

Characteristics Edit

Some design elements of a Web 1.0 site include: [14]

  • Static pages instead of dynamic HTML. [15]
  • Content served from the server’s filesystem instead of a relational database management system (RDBMS).
  • Pages built using Server Side Includes or Common Gateway Interface (CGI) instead of a web application written in a dynamic programming language such as Perl, PHP, Python or Ruby.
  • The use of HTML Three.2-era elements such as frames and tables to position and align elements on a page. These were often used in combination with spacer GIFs. [citation needed]
  • Proprietary HTML extensions, such as the <blink> and <marquee> tags, introduced during the very first browser war.
  • Online guestbooks.
  • GIF buttons, graphics (typically 88×31 pixels in size) promoting web browsers, operating systems, text editors and various other products.
  • HTML forms sent via email. Support for server side scripting was infrequent on collective servers during this period. To provide a feedback mechanism for web site visitors, mailto forms were used. A user would pack in a form, and upon clicking the form’s submit button, their email client would launch and attempt to send an email containing the form’s details. The popularity and complications of the mailto protocol led browser developers to incorporate email clients into their browsers. [16]

Web Two.0 Edit

The term "Web Two.0" was very first used in January one thousand nine hundred ninety nine by Darcy DiNucci, an information architecture consultant. In her article, "Fragmented Future", DiNucci writes: [Four]

The Web we know now, which explosions into a browser window in essentially static screenfuls, is only an embryo of the Web to come. The very first glimmerings of Web Two.0 are beginning to show up, and we are just embarking to see how that embryo might develop. The Web will be understood not as screenfuls of text and graphics but as a transport mechanism, the ether through which interactivity happens. It will [. ] show up on your computer screen, [. ] on your TV set [. ] your car dashboard [. ] your cell phone [. ] hand-held game machines [. ] maybe even your microwave oven.

Writing when Palm Inc. was introducing its very first Web-capable individual digital assistant, supporting Web access with WAP, DiNucci witnessed the Web "fragmenting" into a future that extended beyond the browser/PC combination it was identified with. She focused on how the basic information structure and hyperlinking mechanism introduced by HTTP would be used by a diversity of devices and platforms. As such, her use of the "Two.0" designation refers to a next version of the Web that does not directly relate to the term’s current use. [ citation needed ]

The term Web Two.0 did not resurface until 2002. [17] [Legitimate] [Nineteen] These authors concentrate on the concepts presently associated with the term where, as Scott Dietzen puts it, "the Web becomes a universal, standards-based integration platform". [Nineteen] In 2004, the term began its rise in popularity when O’Reilly Media and MediaLive hosted the very first Web Two.0 conference. In their opening remarks, John Battelle and Tim O’Reilly outlined their definition of the "Web as Platform", where software applications are built upon the Web as opposed to upon the desktop. The unique aspect of this migration, they argued, is that "customers are building your business for you". [20] They argued that the activities of users generating content (in the form of ideas, text, movies, or pictures) could be "harnessed" to create value. O’Reilly and Battelle contrasted Web Two.0 with what they called "Web 1.0". They associated this term with the business models of Netscape and the Encyclopædia Britannica Online. For example,

Netscape framed "the web as platform" in terms of the old software paradigm: their flagship product was the web browser, a desktop application, and their strategy was to use their dominance in the browser market to establish a market for high-priced server products. Control over standards for displaying content and applications in the browser would, in theory, give Netscape the kind of market power loved by Microsoft in the PC market. Much like the "horseless carriage" framed the automobile as an extension of the familiar, Netscape promoted a "webtop" to substitute the desktop, and planned to populate that webtop with information updates and applets shoved to the webtop by information providers who would purchase Netscape servers. [21]

In brief, Netscape focused on creating software, releasing updates and bug fixes, and distributing it to the end users. O’Reilly contrasted this with Google, a company that did not at the time concentrate on producing end-user software, but instead on providing a service based on data such as the links Web page authors make inbetween sites. Google exploits this user-generated content to suggest Web search based on reputation through its "PageRank" algorithm. Unlike software, which undergoes scheduled releases, such services are permanently updated, a process called "the perpetual beta". A similar difference can be seen inbetween the Encyclopædia Britannica Online and Wikipedia: while the Britannica relies upon experts to write articles and releases them periodically in publications, Wikipedia relies on trust in (sometimes anonymous) community members to permanently write and edit content. Wikipedia editors are not required to have educational credentials, such as degrees, in the subjects in which they are editing. Wikipedia is not based on subject-matter expertise, but rather on an adaptation of the open source software adage "given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow". This maxim is stating that if enough users are able to look at a software product’s code (or a website), then these users will be able to fix any "bugs" or other problems. Wikipedia’s volunteer editor community produces, edits and updates articles permanently. O’Reilly’s Web Two.0 conferences have been held every year since 2004, attracting entrepreneurs, representatives from large companies, tech experts and technology reporters.

The popularity of Web Two.0 was acknowledged by two thousand six TIME magazine Person of The Year (You). [22] That is, TIME selected the masses of users who were participating in content creation on social networks, blogs, wikis, and media sharing sites. In the cover story, Lev Grossman explains:

It’s a story about community and collaboration on a scale never seen before. It’s about the cosmic compendium of skill Wikipedia and the million-channel people’s network YouTube and the online metropolis MySpace. It’s about the many wresting power from the few and helping one another for nothing and how that will not only switch the world but also switch the way the world switches.

Instead of merely reading a Web Two.0 site, a user is invited to contribute to the site’s content by commenting on published articles or creating a user account or profile on the site, which may enable enlargened participation. By enlargening emphasis on these already-extant capabilities, they encourage the user to rely more on their browser for user interface, application software ("apps") and file storage facilities. This has been called "network as platform" computing. [Two] Major features of Web Two.0 include social networking websites, self-publishing platforms (e.g., WordPress’ easy-to-use blog and website creation instruments), "tagging" (which enables users to label websites, movies or photos in some style), "like" buttons (which enable a user to indicate that they are pleased by online content), and social bookmarking. Users can provide the data that is on a Web Two.0 site and exercise some control over that data. [Two] [23] These sites may have an "architecture of participation" that encourages users to add value to the application as they use it. [1] [Two] Users can add value in many ways, such as by commenting on a news story on a news website, by uploading a relevant photo on a travel website, or by adding a link to a movie or TED talk which is pertinent to the subject being discussed on a website. Some scholars argue that cloud computing is an example of Web Two.0 because cloud computing is simply an implication of computing on the Internet. [24]

Web Two.0 offers almost all users the same freedom to contribute. [25] While this opens the possibility for serious debate and collaboration, it also increases the incidence of "spamming", "trolling", and can even create a venue for racist hate speech, cyberbullying and defamation. The impossibility of excluding group members who do not contribute to the provision of goods (i.e., to the creation of a user-generated website) from sharing the benefits (of using the website) gives rise to the possibility that serious members will choose to withhold their contribution of effort and "free rail" on the contributions of others. [26] This requires what is sometimes called radical trust by the management of the Web site. According to Best, [27] the characteristics of Web Two.0 are: rich user practice, user participation, dynamic content, metadata, Web standards, and scalability. Further characteristics, such as openness, freedom [28] and collective intelligence [29] by way of user participation, can also be viewed as essential attributes of Web Two.0. Some websites require users to contribute user-generated content to have access to the website, to discourage "free railing".

The key features of Web Two.0 [30] include:

  1. Folksonomy – free classification of information; permits users to collectively classify and find information (e.g. "tagging" of websites, pics, movies or links)
  2. Rich user practice – dynamic content that is responsive to user input (e.g., a user can "click" on an photo to enhance it or find out more information)
  3. User participation – information flows two ways inbetween site possessor and site users by means of evaluation, review, and online commenting. Site users also typically create user-generated content for others to see (e.g., Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia that anyone can write articles for or edit)
  4. Software as a service (SaaS) – Web Two.0 sites developed APIs to permit automated usage, such as by a Web "app" (software application) or a mashup
  5. Mass participation – near-universal web access leads to differentiation of concerns, from the traditional Internet user base (who tended to be hackers and computer hobbyists) to a broader diversity of users

Comparison with Web 1.0 Edit

In 2005, Tim O’Reilly and Dale Dougherty held a brainstorming session to elucidate characteristics and components of the Web 1.0 to Web Two.0 transition and what switched: [31]

The client-side (Web browser) technologies used in Web Two.0 development include Ajax and JavaScript frameworks. Ajax programming uses JavaScript and the Document Object Model to update selected regions of the page area without undergoing a utter page reload. To permit users to proceed to interact with the page, communications such as data requests going to the server are separated from data coming back to the page (asynchronously). Otherwise, the user would have to routinely wait for the data to come back before they can do anything else on that page, just as a user has to wait for a page to accomplish the reload. This also increases overall spectacle of the site, as the sending of requests can accomplish quicker independent of blocking and queueing required to send data back to the client. The data fetched by an Ajax request is typically formatted in XML or JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) format, two widely used structured data formats. Since both of these formats are natively understood by JavaScript, a programmer can lightly use them to transmit structured data in their Web application. When this data is received via Ajax, the JavaScript program then uses the Document Object Model (DOM) to dynamically update the Web page based on the fresh data, permitting for a rapid and interactive user practice. In brief, using these technics, Web designers can make their pages function like desktop applications. For example, Google Docs uses this mechanism to create a Web-based word processor.

As a widely available plugin independent of W3C standards (the World Broad Web Consortium is the governing assets of Web standards and protocols), Adobe Flash is capable of doing many things that were not possible pre-HTML5. Of Flash’s many capabilities, the most commonly used is its capability to integrate streaming multimedia into HTML pages. With the introduction of HTML5 in two thousand ten and growing concerns with Flash’s security, the role of Flash is decreasing. In addition to Flash and Ajax, JavaScript/Ajax frameworks have recently become a very popular means of creating Web Two.0 sites. At their core, these frameworks use the same technology as JavaScript, Ajax, and the DOM. However, frameworks sleek over inconsistencies inbetween Web browsers and extend the functionality available to developers. Many of them also come with customizable, prefabricated ‘widgets’ that accomplish such common tasks as picking a date from a calendar, displaying a data chart, or making a tabbed panel. On the server-side, Web Two.0 uses many of the same technologies as Web 1.0. Languages such as Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, as well as Enterprise Java (J2EE) and Microsoft.NET Framework, are used by developers to output data dynamically using information from files and databases. This permits websites and web services to share machine readable formats such as XML (Atom, RSS, etc.) and JSON. When data is available in one of these formats, another website can use it to integrate a portion of that site’s functionality.

Web Two.0 can be described in three parts:

  • Rich Internet application (RIA) — defines the practice brought from desktop to browser, whether it is "rich" from a graphical point of view or a usability/interactivity or features point of view.
  • Web-oriented architecture (WOA) — defines how Web Two.0 applications expose their functionality so that other applications can leverage and integrate the functionality providing a set of much richer applications. Examples are feeds, RSS feeds, web services, mashups.
  • Social Web — defines how Web Two.0 websites tends to interact much more with the end user and make the end-user an integral part of the website, either by adding her profile, adding comments on content, uploading fresh content, or adding user-generated content (e.g., private digital photos).

As such, Web Two.0 draws together the capabilities of client- and server-side software, content syndication and the use of network protocols. Standards-oriented Web browsers may use plug-ins and software extensions to treat the content and the user interactions. Web Two.0 sites provide users with information storage, creation, and dissemination capabilities that were not possible in the environment now known as "Web 1.0".

Web Two.0 sites include the following features and technics, referred to as the acronym SLATES by Andrew McAfee: [32]

Search Finding information through keyword search. Links to other websites Connects information sources together using the model of the Web. Authoring The capability to create and update content leads to the collaborative work of many authors. Wiki users may extend, undo, redo and edit each other’s work. Comment systems permit readers to contribute their viewpoints. Tags Categorization of content by users adding "tags" — brief, usually one-word or two word descriptions — to facilitate searching. For example, a user can tag a metal song as "death metal". Collections of tags created by many users within a single system may be referred to as "folksonomies" (i.e., folk taxonomies). Extensions Software that makes the Web an application platform as well as a document server. Examples include Adobe Reader, Adobe Flash, Microsoft Silverlight, ActiveX, Oracle Java, QuickTime, and Windows Media. Signals The use of syndication technology, such as RSS feeds to notify users of content switches.

While SLATES forms the basic framework of Enterprise Two.0, it does not contradict all of the higher level Web Two.0 design patterns and business models. It includes discussions of self-service IT, the long tail of enterprise IT request, and many other consequences of the Web Two.0 era in enterprise uses. [33]

A third significant part of Web Two.0 is the social web. The social Web consists of a number of online implements and platforms where people share their perspectives, opinions, thoughts and practices. Web Two.0 applications tend to interact much more with the end user. As such, the end user is not only a user of the application but also a participant by:

The popularity of the term Web Two.0, along with the enhancing use of blogs, wikis, and social networking technologies, has led many in academia and business to append a flurry of Two.0’s to existing concepts and fields of probe, [34] including Library Two.0, Social Work Two.0, [35] Enterprise Two.0, PR Two.0, [36] Classroom Two.0, [37] Publishing Two.0, [38] Medicine Two.0, [39] Telco Two.0, Travel Two.0, Government Two.0, [40] and even Porn Two.0. [41] Many of these Two.0s refer to Web Two.0 technologies as the source of the fresh version in their respective disciplines and areas. For example, in the Talis white paper "Library Two.0: The Challenge of Disruptive Innovation", Paul Miller argues

Blogs, wikis and RSS are often held up as exemplary manifestations of Web Two.0. A reader of a blog or a wiki is provided with devices to add a comment or even, in the case of the wiki, to edit the content. This is what we call the Read/Write web. Talis believes that Library Two.0 means harnessing this type of participation so that libraries can benefit from increasingly rich collaborative cataloging efforts, such as including contributions from playmate libraries as well as adding rich enhancements, such as book jackets or movie files, to records from publishers and others. [42]

Here, Miller links Web Two.0 technologies and the culture of participation that they engender to the field of library science, supporting his claim that there is now a "Library Two.0". Many of the other proponents of fresh Two.0s mentioned here use similar methods. The meaning of Web Two.0 is role dependent. For example, some use Web Two.0 to establish and maintain relationships through social networks, while some marketing managers might use this promising technology to "end-run traditionally unresponsive I.T. department[s]." [43] There is a debate over the use of Web Two.0 technologies in mainstream education. Issues under consideration include the understanding of students’ different learning modes; the conflicts inbetween ideas entrenched in informal on-line communities and educational establishments’ views on the production and authentication of ‘formal’ skill; and questions about privacy, plagiarism, collective authorship and the ownership of skill and information produced and/or published on line. [44]

Marketing Edit

Web Two.0 is used by companies, non-profit organizations and governments for interactive marketing. A growing number of marketers are using Web Two.0 implements to collaborate with consumers on product development, customer service enhancement, product or service improvement and promotion. Companies can use Web Two.0 devices to improve collaboration with both its business playmates and consumers. Among other things, company employees have created wikis—Web sites that permit users to add, delete, and edit content — to list answers to frequently asked questions about each product, and consumers have added significant contributions. Another marketing Web Two.0 lure is to make sure consumers can use the online community to network among themselves on topics of their own choosing. [45] Mainstream media usage of Web Two.0 is enlargening. Saturating media hubs—like The Fresh York Times, PC Magazine and Business Week — with links to popular fresh Web sites and services, is critical to achieving the threshold for mass adoption of those services. [46] User web content can be used to gauge consumer satisfaction. In a latest article for Bank Technology News, Shane Kite describes how Citigroup’s Global Transaction Services unit monitors social media outlets to address customer issues and improve products. [47] According to Google Timeline, the term Web Two.0 was discussed and indexed most frequently in 2005, two thousand seven and 2008. Its average use is continuously declining by 2–4% per quarter since April 2008. [ citation needed ]

Destination Marketing Edit

In tourism industries, social media is an effective channel to attract travellers and promote the tourism product and services by engaging with customers. The brand of tourist destinations can be built through the marketing campaigns on social media by engaging with customers. For example, the “Snow at Very first Sight” campaign launched by the State of Colorado aimed at a brand awareness of Colorado as a winter destination. The campaign used social media platforms, for examples, Facebook and Twitter, to promote this competition, and requested the participates to share practices, pictures and movies on social medias. As a result, Colorado enhanced the photo of winter destination and a campaign worth was about $Two.9 million. [48]

The tourism organisation can earn a brand royalty from interactive marketing campaigns on social media with engaging passive communication tactics. For example, “Moms” advisors of the Walt Disney World are responsibilities for suggest suggestions and reply answers about the family trips at the Walt Disney World. Due to its characteristic of experts in Disney, the “Moms” was chosen to represent the campaign. [49] The social networking such as Facebook can be used as a platform for providing a detailed information about the marketing campaign, as well as real-time online communication with customers. Korean Airline Tour created and maintained a relationship with customers by using Facebook for individual communication purposes. [50]

Travel Two.0 refers a model of Web Two.0 on tourism industries which provided virtual travel communities. Travel Two.0 model permit user to create their own contents and exchange their words through globally interactive features on websites. [51] [52] The users also can contribute their practices, pictures and suggestions regarding their trips on online travel communities. For example, TripAdvisor is an online travel community which enables user to rate and share autonomously their reviews and feedbacks on hotels and tourist destinations. Non pre-associate users can interact socially and discuss through discussion forums on Tripadvior. [53] Social media, especially Travel Two.0 website, plays a crucial role in decision-making behaviours of travellers. The user-generated contents on social media implements have a significant influence on travellers’ choices and organisation preferences. The travel Two.0 emerged a radical switch in receiving information methods of travellers from business-to-customer marketing into peer-to-peer reviews. The user-generated contents become a vital implement for helping a number of travellers manage their international travels for the very first time visiting. [54] The travellers tend to trust and rely on peer-to-peer reviews and virtual communications on social media rather than the information provided by travel supplier. [53] [49] In addition, An autonomous review feature on social media would help traveller reduce risks and uncertainties before purchasing stages. [51] [54] Social media is also a channel for customer complaints and negative feedbacks which can harm pictures of organisations and destinations. [54] For example, a majority of UK travellers read customer reviews before booking hotels and the bookings of hotels receiving negative feedbacks would be refrained by half of customers. [54] Therefore, the organisations should develop strategic plans to treat and manage the negative feedbacks on social media. Albeit the user-generated content and rating system on social media are out of business controls, the businesses can monitor those conversations and participate in communities to enhance a customer loyalty and maintain customer relationships. [49]

Web Two.0 could permit for more collaborative education. For example, blogs give students a public space to interact with one another and the content of the class. [55] Some studies suggest that Web Two.0 can increase the public’s understanding of science, which could improve governments’ policy decisions. A two thousand twelve investigate by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison notes that ". the internet could be a crucial device in enhancing the general public’s level of science literacy. This increase could then lead to better communication inbetween researchers and the public, more substantive discussion, and more informed policy decision." [56]

Ajax has prompted the development of Web sites that mimic desktop applications, such as word processing, the spreadsheet, and slide-show presentation. WYSIWYG wiki and blogging sites replicate many features of PC authoring applications. Several browser-based services have emerged, including EyeOS [57] and YouOS.(No longer active.) [58] Albeit named operating systems, many of these services are application platforms. They mimic the user practice of desktop operating-systems, suggesting features and applications similar to a PC environment, and are able to run within any modern browser. However, these so-called "operating systems" do not directly control the hardware on the client’s computer. Numerous web-based application services appeared during the dot-com bubble of 1997–2001 and then vanished, having failed to build up a critical mass of customers.

XML and RSS Edit

Many regard syndication of site content as a Web Two.0 feature. Syndication uses standardized protocols to permit end-users to make use of a site’s data in another context (such as another Web site, a browser plugin, or a separate desktop application). Protocols permitting syndication include RSS (truly ordinary syndication, also known as Web syndication), RDF (as in RSS 1.1), and Atom, all of which are XML-based formats. Observers have began to refer to these technologies as Web feeds. Specialized protocols such as FOAF and XFN (both for social networking) extend the functionality of sites and permit end-users to interact without centralized Web sites.

Web APIs Edit

Web Two.0 often uses machine-based interactions such as REST and SOAP. Servers often expose proprietary Application programming interfaces (API), but standard APIs (for example, for posting to a blog or notifying a blog update) have also come into use. Most communications through APIs involve XML or JSON payloads. REST APIs, through their use of self-descriptive messages and hypermedia as the engine of application state, should be self-describing once an entry URI is known. Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is the standard way of publishing a SOAP Application programming interface and there are a range of Web service specifications.

Critics of the term claim that "Web Two.0" does not represent a fresh version of the World Broad Web at all, but merely resumes to use so-called "Web 1.0" technologies and concepts. [Five] Very first, technics such as Ajax do not substitute underlying protocols like HTTP, but add an extra layer of abstraction on top of them. 2nd, many of the ideas of Web Two.0 were already featured in implementations on networked systems well before the term "Web Two.0" emerged. Amazon.com, for example, has permitted users to write reviews and consumer guides since its launch in 1995, in a form of self-publishing. Amazon also opened its API to outside developers in 2002. [59] Previous developments also came from research in computer-supported collaborative learning and computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) and from established products like Lotus Notes and Lotus Domino, all phenomena that preceded Web Two.0. Tim Berners-Lee, who developed the initial technologies of the Web, has been an outspoken critic of the term, while supporting many of the elements associated with it. [60] In the environment where the Web originated, each workstation had a dedicated IP address and always-on connection to the Internet. Sharing a file or publishing a web page was as elementary as moving the file into a collective folder. [61]

Perhaps the most common criticism is that the term is unclear or simply a buzzword. For many people who work in software, version numbers like Two.0 and Three.0 are for software versioning or hardware versioning only, and to assign Two.0 arbitrarily to many technologies with a multiplicity of real version numbers has no meaning. The web does not have a version number. For example, in a two thousand six interview with IBM developerWorks podcast editor Scott Laningham, Tim Berners-Lee described the term "Web Two.0" as a jargon: [Five]

"Nobody indeed knows what it means. If Web Two.0 for you is blogs and wikis, then that is people to people. But that was what the Web was supposed to be all along. Web Two.0, for some people, it means moving some of the thinking [to the] client side, so making it more instantaneous, but the idea of the Web as interaction inbetween people is truly what the Web is. That was what it was designed to be. a collaborative space where people can interact."

Other critics labeled Web Two.0 "a 2nd bubble" (referring to the Dot-com bubble of 1997–2000), suggesting that too many Web Two.0 companies attempt to develop the same product with a lack of business models. For example, The Economist has dubbed the mid- to late-2000s concentrate on Web companies as "Bubble Two.0". [62]

In terms of Web Two.0’s social influence, critics such as Andrew Keen argue that Web Two.0 has created a cult of digital narcissism and amateurism, which undermines the notion of expertise by permitting anybody, anywhere to share and place undue value upon their own opinions about any subject and post any kind of content, regardless of their actual talent, skill, credentials, biases or possible hidden agendas. Keen’s two thousand seven book, Cult of the Inexperienced, argues that the core assumption of Web Two.0, that all opinions and user-generated content are identically valuable and relevant, is misguided. Additionally, Sunday Times reviewer John Flintoff has characterized Web Two.0 as "creating an endless digital forest of mediocrity: uninformed political commentary, unseemly home movies, embarrassingly amateurish music, unreadable poems, essays and novels. [and that Wikipedia is total of] mistakes, half truths and misunderstandings". [63] In a one thousand nine hundred ninety four Wired interview, Steve Jobs, forecasting the future development of the web for private publishing, said "The Web is superb because that person can’t foist anything on you – you have to go get it. They can make themselves available, but if nobody wants to look at their site, that’s fine. To be fair, most people who have something to say get published now." [64] Michael Gorman, former president of the American Library Association has been vocal about his opposition to Web Two.0 due to the lack of expertise that it outwardly claims, tho’ he believes that there is hope for the future. [65]

"The task before us is to extend into the digital world the virtues of authenticity, expertise, and scholarly apparatus that have evolved over the five hundred years of print, virtues often absent in the manuscript age that preceded print".

There is also a growing figure of critique of Web Two.0 from the perspective of political economy. Since, as Tim O’Reilly and John Batelle put it, Web Two.0 is based on the "customers. building your business for you," [20] critics have argued that sites such as Google, Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter are exploiting the "free labor" [66] of user-created content. [67] Web Two.0 sites use Terms of Service agreements to claim perpetual licenses to user-generated content, and they use that content to create profiles of users to sell to marketers. [68] This is part of enhanced surveillance of user activity happening within Web Two.0 sites. [Sixty-nine] Jonathan Zittrain of Harvard’s Berkman Center for the Internet and Society argues that such data can be used by governments who want to monitor dissident citizens. [70] The rise of AJAX-driven web sites where much of the content must be rendered on the client has meant that users of older hardware are given worse spectacle versus a site purely composed of HTML, where the processing takes place on the server. [71] Accessibility for disabled or impaired users may also suffer in a Web Two.0 site. [72]

Others have noted that Web Two.0 technologies are tied to particular political ideologies. "Web Two.0 discourse is a conduit for the materialization of neoliberal ideology." Marwick, Alice (2010). "Status Update: Celebrity, publicity and Self-Branding in Web Two.0" (PDF) . The technologies of Web Two.0 may also "function as a disciplining technology within the framework of a neoliberal political economy." Jarrett, Kylie (2008). "Interactivity Is Evil! A Critical Investigation of Web Two.0". Very first Monday. 13 (Three).

In November 2004, CMP Media applied to the USPTO for a service mark on the use of the term "WEB Two.0" for live events. [73] On the basis of this application, CMP Media sent a cease-and-desist request to the Irish non-profit organization IT@Cork on May 24, 2006, [74] but retracted it two days later. [75] The "WEB Two.0" service mark registration passed final PTO Examining Attorney review on May Ten, 2006, and was registered on June 27, 2006. [73] The European Union application (which would confer unambiguous status in Ireland) [76] was declined on May 23, 2007.

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